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名词性从句常见错误例析

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⊙ 河南省许昌市高级中学  刘新会

    1. 【误】  He will come back surprises all of us.
    【正】  That he will come back surprises all of us.
    【析】  that引导名词性从句时,尽管无意义也不充当成分,但除了在动词后引导单个宾语从句时可省略外,其它情况不能省略。


    2. 【误】  That he really means is what he doesn’t agree with us.
    【正】  What he really means is that he doesn’t agree with us.
    【析】  that和what均可引导名词性从句,区别在于:what在名词性从句中作主语、宾语或表语,而that在名词性从句中不作任何成分,只起连接作用。误句的主语从句应该用what作means的宾语,表语从句中应该用that,that在从句中不作任何成分。


    3. 【误】  The news which our team had won pleased everyone.
    【正】  The news that our team had won  pleased
everyone.
    【析】  which在此句中不充当成分,说明从句不是定语从句而是同位语从句。同位语从句不能用which引导,故改为that。


    4. 【误】  The reason why he failed in the exam was because he was too careless.
    【正】  The reason why he failed in the exam was that he was too careless.
    【析】  主语为reason时,引导表语从句的关联词一般用that,不用because,构成The reason why/for which/that/for . . . is that . . . 句型。because引导名词性从句只用于It/This/That is because . . . 结构。


    5. 【误】  It is unknown that where we will have the meeting.
    【正】  It is unknown where we will have the meeting.
    【析】  名词性从句一般只能用一个引导词,连接词that与连接副词不可并用。


    6. 【误】  The problem is when will he come back.
    【正】  The problem is when he will come back.
    【析】  名词性从句应该用陈述句语序,即“引导词 + 主语 + 谓语”。


    7. 【误】  Could you tell me which was the way to the Science Museum?
    【正】  Could you tell me which is the way to the Science Museum?
    【析】  当主句为过去时态的时候,宾语从句中要用过去的某种时态。但该句中的could不是表示过去,而是表示一种委婉的语气,故宾语从句中的谓语动词应用一般时态。


    8. 【误】  If he is an engineer is unknown.
    【正】  Whether he is an engineer is unknown.
    【析】  if不能用来引导主语从句,在表示“是否”这一意义时要用whether。


    9. 【误】  I have been worrying about if I have hurt her feelings.
    【正】  I have been worrying about whether I have hurt her feelings.
    【析】  if和whether引导动词后的宾语从句时可互换。但介词后的宾语从句及主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句只能用whether引导。


    10. 【误】  What he needs are enough time and what I need is enough books.
    【正】  What he needs is enough time and what I need are enough books.
    【析】  名词性从句作主语时,谓语动词常用单数。但what引导主语从句时,若表语为单数名词或不可数名词,则谓语动词用单数;若表语为可数名词复数,则谓语动词常用复数。


    11. 【误】  No matter who comes to visit the exhi-bition is welcome.
    【正】  Whoever comes to visit the exhibition is welcome.
    【析】  “No matter + 疑问词”结构只能引导让步状语从句,“wh- + ever”既可引导让步状语从句,也可引导名词性从句。


    12. 【误】  I’ll make known to all that you were not honest.
    【正】  I’ll make it known to all that you were not honest.
    【析】  当宾语从句前有形容词或名词作宾补时,须用it作形式宾语,而将真正的宾语从句后置。其句式为:主语 + 动词 + 形式宾语it + 宾补(形容词或名词)+ 宾语从句。又如:I found it quite pleasant that I worked with him.


    13. 【误】  He is said that he has gone to America.
    【正】  It is said that he has gone to America.
    【析】  It is said that是一固定句型,it为形式主语,不可用其他词代替。


    14. 【误】  My suggestion is that we will learn more words by heart.
    【正】  My suggestion is that we should learn more words by heart.
    【析】  主语为suggestion, advice, order, proposal等名词时,表语从句要用虚拟语气,即用“(should)+ 动词原形”的结构。这些名词的同位语从句也要用虚拟语气。


    15. 【误】  Why we decided to put off the meeting is because we had some difficulty in preparing it.
    【正】  Why we decided to put off the meeting is that we had some difficulty in preparing it.
    【析】  why引导主语从句时,表语从句要用that引导。

金题精练


    单句改错:
    1. When and where we shall have the lecture are not decided.
    2. They want to make it clear to the public which they do an important job.
    3. He ordered that the injured had been taken good care of.
    4. Where will they go is to be discussed at tomorrow’s meeting.
    5. This is a fact that English is widely used as an international language.
    6. What the earth moves around the sun is known to all.
    7. The news they had won the game surprised us.

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